Turnaround: “Mobility must be affordable and at the same time sustainable”

Even though more and more consumers are switching to bus and rail, CO2 emissions in transport have increased significantly in 2017. With a package of measures, the new government wants to ensure that the air in the cities becomes cleaner again. The mobility shift faces many challenges, according to Kirsten Lühmann, spokeswoman for the transport policy of the SPD parliamentary group.

11.5 billion people traveled by bus and train in 2017. Passenger traffic thus continues its growth course. Nevertheless, the car remains the preferred means of transport. This could change in the future, however. The Grand Coalition has set itself the goal of promoting alternative drive systems, car sharing and investing more in electromobility . In the next few years could be so fewer vehicles with gasoline or diesel drive on Germany’s roads, says Kirsten Lühmann, transport policy spokeswoman for the SPD parliamentary group.

She also hopes that the diesel crisis will give new impetus, “so that the time is hopefully ripe for sensible electromobility beyond the metropolises .” In an interview with finanzen.de, the transport politician explains not only which course the Federal Government has set, but also what the goals are Mobility change from the perspective of the SPD must meet.

Ms. Lühmann, what are your current topics in your constituency Celle and Uelzen in transport policy and infrastructure?

Kirsten Lühmann: Important for the Celle-Uelzen region is, inter alia, the planned closing of the gap between the Federal Highway 39 between Lüneburg and Wolfsburg with the cross-connection towards Celle. Here, as a transport politician, I bring myself continuously in order to find the most environmentally and people-friendly route.

The conflict between environmental protection and the subject of protection human beings bothers me in principle, because the latter threatens to fall by an exemplary environmental legislation of the EU instantly in the background.

Another important infrastructure project for Celle and Uelzen is the nationwide expansion of broadband networks with fiber-optic networks that are routed right to the homes. Here, the regional players took part in a joint effort in advance and set the course for future viability. Especially in our structurally weak region, this is a crucial condition for the preservation and expansion of competitiveness.

In addition to nationwide fiber-optic networks, the Union and the SPD have agreed to make significant progress in electromobility in Germany. How well are Celle and Uelzen currently positioned on this topic?

Kirsten Lühmann: In Uelzen, for example, there are charging stations at the train station and the swimming pool, and charging stations on public roads and parking garages are also available in Celle. In both places, among other things, the local energy suppliers are drivers for the successful implementation. Unfortunately, not all dealerships support the initiative.

The districts of Celle and Uelzen are a tourism region. Therefore, many offers for e-bike users are marketed via Lüneburger Heide GmbH. This is excellently accepted by the resident population and tourists.

With the agreement in the coalition agreement on an infrastructure also get old and new initiatives a boost , which finally allows a safe and sustainable use. For example, there is the Electric Office of the Hanover Metropolitan Region, which promotes the use of electric vehicles in our region, but so far has not been able to achieve the necessary success without a nationwide overall strategy. However, the diesel crisis is increasing the pressure on vehicle manufacturers and municipalities so that the time is finally finally ripe for meaningful electromobility beyond the metropolises .

According to Kraftfahrtbundesamt, at the beginning of 2017 there were only about 55,000 vehicles with electric or plug-in hybrid drive. By 2020, a million electric cars should be on German roads. What are the three steps to move electro mobility on federal level?

Kirsten Lühmann: In the coalition agreement we have agreed as an SPD with the Union on important measures to further promote electromobility. A central role is played by the charging infrastructure and the simplified payment during charging.

In addition to the ongoing investments, we intend to invest further funds in the development of a nationwide charging and tank infrastructure, thus installing at least 100,000 additional charging points by 2020. In addition, we will improve the legal conditions for user-friendly payment systems in order to finally replace the existing patchwork carpet and also to increase its attractiveness here.

In addition, we need a higher proportion of electric vehicles . Above all, we have to get them in perspective in the secondary market. So we will increase the purchase price for taxis and light commercial vehicles. In addition, we will introduce a five-year special deduction for commercial vehicle use for 50 percent wear in the year of purchase. This brings even more electric cars on the road.

Would you personally rather drive an electric car or a diesel?

Kirsten Lühmann: I drive a car with natural gas and advocate a technology- open approach . People must have the option to choose a drive according to their needs. If you often travel long distances, you may want to purchase a diesel vehicle with the latest emission control. If you usually travel shorter distances, it may well be worth a mere battery electric vehicle. The possibilities are manifold and they get even bigger when we think of fuel cell vehicles .

Diesel drivers are currently particularly interested in the impending driving bans. In your opinion, what would be the best solution to avert these and at the same time to reduce nitrogen dioxide pollution so that the limits in cities and municipalities are met?

Kirsten Lühmann: The SPD parliamentary group continues to campaign for driving bans on diesel vehicles to be averted. The best solution could be provided by carmakers themselves, taking responsibility and hardware retrofitting without putting any financial burden on vehicle owners.

Apart from that, I do not see any meaningful and balanced nationwide individual measure, with which we will comply with the EU limit in all affected cities. Rather, we must continue to rely on a set of measures as before. The most effective solutions must be implemented together with the responsible people on the ground.

In some cities, federally funded retrofitting of old diesel buses to meet the limit may be sufficient, while other cities will need other measures such as increased electrification and digitization of transport.

Will citizens still be sitting in a car with diesel or gasoline engines in 15 years or will another drive technology be the measure of all things?

Kirsten Lühmann: That’s hard to say, it depends on many factors. But there will certainly be significantly fewer vehicles with diesel or gasoline engine on the way. In certain applications, such as road haulage (trucks), the internal combustion engine may be needed even longer. Here, for example, regeneratively produced natural gas represents a useful bridge technology. Synthetic production processes also offer great opportunities for other conventional fuels as well.

Ultimately, we need a timetable for a successful turnaround that sets the possible tools for all participants. Therefore, we will set up a commission that will develop a strategy for the “Future of Affordable and Sustainable Mobility” with a reliable timetable by the beginning of 2019.

It is important that the challenges of mobility change are tackled together. Social Democrats always look at both sides of the coin: Mobility must be affordable and sustainable at the same time.

Quick Approval Credit – Exactly Where Can I Get It?

So, you simply got the mail from your mailbox and you find a good envelope that exclaims you aren’t approved for an “Instant Acceptance Credit Card”. What does everything mean?

Obtain a secured bank card. A secured card any that has a limit that is supported by a cash deposit. The chance to the lender is minimum, as they have your money readily available in the event that you fail to pay out. A card with a restrict of as little as $100 might be useful if you use it frequently and pay your costs in full each month. Make sure that your own bank will provide information about them and your use of it towards the credit bureaus. Credit cards to rebuild credit tend to have increased fees and interest rates compared to unsecured cards; you don’t wish to use one if it isn’t very going to benefit you by any means.

Bankruptcy is not the end of the credit forever. You will in a position to repair your credit later on. Moving forward begins with getting positive about changing your circumstances. Starting over is hard however the good part is you aren’t given a second chance.

Just remember that, if you are a consumer who usually carries a balance on your cards, you should be more concerned with the eye rate. Carrying a balance more often than not means that you are paying a lot more interest than you are attaining with rewards so just consider cash credit cards for excellent credit when the interest rate is comparable to other credit cards.

This will keep your ratings where they need to be as soon as you establish them. After regarding 6 to 12 months you are able to request a limit raise. This is another sure method to increase your credit scores.

On most credit cards, it has an introductory offer that can final anywhere from three months up to fifteen months. You want to look at the duration and apply for a credit card having an offer that lasts so long as possible – especially if you are likely to transfer any balances. Obtain an instant approval credit cards card which has no fees for stability transfers.

Which means you get a prepaid credit card for fifty dollars and you have it in your finances for four or five months. Eventually, you go to use it on a $30 purchase but the card isn’t very working. You call to discover your balance and you realize really less than $20. How achieved it happen?

Your Credit Resource offers consumer credit cards plus tips on managing consumer credit. For additional information, or to apply for a card, go to Your Credit Source.

Berlin forced and forced supporter of Holland

The government of Angela Merkel does not intend to complicate the task of François Hollande.

It will undoubtedly support the Commission’s proposal to give France another two years to reduce its deficit below 3% of GDP. Senior German officials have even told Libération to cross their fingers so that the head of state can quickly recover the French economy and debt consolidation. Because unlike Spain, France is too big a piece to be helped by its European partners. In Berlin, it is estimated that it will have to get out of its difficult economic situation alone and by its own strength, otherwise it will lead to the bottom of the euro area as a whole.

On the eve of François Hollande’s press conference, the German message is simple: structural reforms (labor costs, working hours, pensions, training) must be continued and expanded in France because the survival of Europe it depends. And if in order to pass these necessarily painful reforms, Holland must give the hat to Angela Merkel, Berlin, good prince, is ready to accept it. As one German official points out, it is easier to live with an external force than the difficulties one faces. But, it is stressed in the entourage of Merkel, this will not change the reality: Europe is not an island and it must regain its competitiveness to weigh in the world concert.

For Berlin, the Germanophobia which develops in the opinion of the countries in difficulty is only a temporary evil: it is certain that it will be forgotten as soon as growth returns. Do we have fun speeches of a part of the left and the right French on the protectionism or the return to the nation-state: that will weigh a country of 67 or 83 million inhabitants in a world populated of 7.5 billions of human beings?

German leaders recall that despite the difficulties the Union faces, it remains an extremely rich continent.

For them, the sacrifices that the current generation will have to make, such as working older or five hours more a week, are necessary for “our children to have a future”. But we reject the word “austerity” that did not exist until two years ago in the German vocabulary, where we speak of “fiscal consolidation”. The policy misunderstanding would come from the “easy” path chosen by countries in difficulty, who preferred to raise taxes on the risk of killing growth rather than liberalizing the economy or cutting public spending. Berlin denounces in particular increases in a VAT, the most unfair tax for the poorest.

On the other side of the Rhine, it is hoped that France can quickly regain its rank in Europe. Because Germany has neither the means nor the intention to hold alone the bar of the euro ship. She denies any desire to lead the Union: for her, it is a collective adventure and that is why she did everything to save the euro, accepting a financial solidarity she had always rejected. For example, by supporting the announcement last July by the European Central Bank to buy the public debt of the countries under attack without limits, which instantly calmed the markets. Incidentally, several German officials welcome the study of the Pew Research Center which shows that the Germans are ready for more financial solidarity (much more than the French), which opens up room for maneuver.

Berlin believes that we must take advantage of the current calm to prepare the future of the euro area. On the banking union, the two banks of the Rhine are almost in agreement on the next steps and should announce it in June: harmonization of the mechanisms of resolution of banking crises, authorization of direct recapitalization of banks by the European stability mechanism, creation of a European banking crisis resolution authority.

But on this last point, Francois Hollande refuses, for fear of his majority, a modification of the European treaties that the Chancellor considers legally necessary. It even wants it to be as wide as possible in order to democratize the functioning of the eurozone, a sine qua condition for citizens to accept reforms. In Berlin, we have across our throats the failures of the Cypriot crisis, where no one dared to publicly assume the first bailout taxing all bank deposits. “We have little time to say where we want to go,” warns Berlin. Will Holland dare to assume the choice of Europe?

Can I File For Bankruptcy For No Cost?

Nobody desires to file personal bankruptcy. The process is embarrassing and most of the people do their best to maintain the fact they’ve filed a closely guarded secret. Still, what if news gets out, particularly at doing the trick? Can you be fired for personal bankruptcy?

Perhaps the most prevalent way to your Chapter 13 bankruptcy to be dismissed is missing contributions. Remember, in this, you are paying over an added manageable period. If you feel the debts are impossible, speak to your lawyer and consider Chapter 7 bankruptcy http://milwaukeebankruptcy.net/ as an alternative solution.

While are usually quality gurus who tell focus on quality and profits follows automatically, this is not a silver bullet that cures all afflictions. Not that quality doesn’t bankruptcy matter, is probably indeed obligatory. However, active business requires trade-offs. Quality without regard to cost will perform.

Even better, you can fashion a solution that an individual makes one payment (much more comfortable to manage), lowers the interest you pay (which means things get paid faster) as well as doesn’t ruin bankruptcy your credit score.

Now a person clear solar power debts in a single shot lead to try to obtain a waiver up to 50% on all the loan cards outstanding statistics. In this regards, you will have to get hold of your all financial institutions and inform them that you do not pay monthly as well as to pay for one shot. See for debt consolidation deal. They’ll agree and will also call you for loan negotiation deal. Now with the aid of debt Relief Company, you’ll make a reasonable settlement cope with all of and better are chance is to get a waiver as much 50% to offer colossal amount.

No one readily invites others to steal their identity, but having the attitude this particular only appear in other people can allow you to receive into trouble. People have ended up losing everything they own and declaring bankruptcy for doing this. It can be difficult to prove and also you can spend years fighting to resolve your credit rating. In the meantime, you probably will not able get any credit for people do seek.

Forex — It Really Can Eat Your Own Capital Alive – Two Things You Want To Know Right Now

Do you often shop around for a speedy encounter to check on the cash aid? It is usually once you plunge into any kind of unexpected crunch. Moreover, unfortunately, you may not know how to get rid of the fiscal woe. It is when the quick and easy payday loans help you out to be the best acquaintances. No matter how lean or indicate your financial trouble is- if you are going to unpredictable difficulty, you definitely need to step out plus clear the pace. The most straightforward thing is apply for a loan with no credit check to look for this particular loan by filling up the license application form that is easiest to recommend and short in terms of reimbursing the sum off.

Are you thinking about getting started with foreign exchange trading? It’s honestly quick cash payday loans not as complicated as it looks. If you can study a price chart you’re fifty percent way home. In Currency trading, you can make money whether the marketplace goes up or down. You may also profit if it’s moving side by side.

First of all, you need to confirm that your potential agent is for real and is signed up with one of those currency government bodies, like National Futures Organization, commodities futures trading Association, Securities Plus Exchange Commission and the like. You must also notice whether your suggested broker sports a dealing table or doesn’t. However, you need to know that dealing desk agents would mean that you’d be investing against brokers and might eventually lose money. Therefore, you should get a non-dealing table type of broker, in which you will directly trade at an interbank level along with matching purchases.

There are dire warnings and additional explanations that can go through the commodity futures market Commission (CTFC) Forex Fraud. Read these carefully and apply precisely what is applicable when entering into any kind of negotiation.

The contrary of this method can sometimes be the best choice also. Let’s say you expect soybeans to trend higher as time passes. If we write a close within strike put option with a lot of time, we will collect the hefty premium. If the marketplace is destined to pattern higher, then the biggest danger is probably within the first a short while. If we can make it through the 1st two months, perhaps the underlying futures market will have gone significantly in our favor.

38) Be careful about diversifying inside futures contract markets. Standard market lore says for you to diversify, but what they are actually saying is they don’t understand what they’re doing. Taking a shotgun approach is a cop-out and even lowers returns dramatically. It is well worth your time to focus on a few and the ideal commodity futures prices – ones you understand well and then stick with these people.

You’ll also make sure that your broker offers in at least the 7 most important currencies. These are the united states Dollar (USD), the Aussie Dollar (AUD), the Canadian Dollar (CAD), the UK Lb (GBP), the Euro (EUR), the Swiss Franc (CHF) and the Japanese Yen (JPY). Very few brokerages do not offer in at least these 7, but you should always check.

Tips On How To Obtain Car Finance With Poor Credit

If you have a credit rating that is less than perfect, and you are looking for ways to get your auto loan quick, here are some great tips which could help you to prepare your lousy credit score auto loan quickly. In fact, you will find hundreds and thousands of bad credit score auto loans have been approved every single day, and this indicates that there should be some ways that people who are dealing with credit-challenged can also get their car loan approved. The best way to get started would be to search around on the Internet since there are many car loan websites that you could access with just one easy click.

You might be familiar with the process folks along with bad credit have to withstand at auto dealerships, also those that supposedly deal with people with poor credit. Hefty lower payments, usurious interest rates as well as the just the high pressure makes for the less than friendly atmosphere. Occasionally the dealer is inclined against a vehicle you do not admire, he is waving mortgage papers before your eyes, and he is telling you what a great big prefer he is doing for you because you have bad credit. You do not have, nor do you deserve, these types of situations. Lenders who focus on evil credit car leasing secrets loans are available to assist you to avoid these situations.

My 1st car was a hand-me-down from my brother who got the vehicle as a hand-me-down from mother and father. Luckily for me, it was the Honda, so even with one hundred and eighty, 000 miles on it, the girl still drove like a dream. Another benefit was obvious which I did not have to pay for it. The majority of you will not be so fortunate. You will have to best payday loan lender either get your credit score upward above a reasonable rate or even find a lender that will provide you with a car loan. Some used car dealers manage the investment through the dealership itself; this is termed as a “buy here – pay out here” dealer. Finding one best place to get a debt consolidation loan particular like this may be your best choice.

Time: A automobile buying guide always lies stress on this point. Sometimes, you have to defer your buy if the economy is not to your advantage or if your credit rating is usually down (as that would improve your cost of auto finance).

Ought to you discover a vehicle that looks great, inquire the product sales individual to look up the Kelly Blue Book(R) worth – and ask to look for the book to be sure you are acquiring a real quality!

Searching online for Blue Sky auto finance doesn’t turn up any sites at all that indicate this company is a scam. In fact, one can only find information on their services. It doesn’t appear that anyone has had any complaints with them. You can ergo search for reviews on the company name to find out what other people think about it. It is a good idea to do some research before getting into a no credit auto financing dealer loan because this will help you to get the best financing available to you.

The answer is Number In my point of view, before obtaining this type of loan, you must first assess your financial circumstance carefully. Since you don’t have a complete time job, you need to ask honestly whether you have just about any side income to pay a new loan monthly. Even if you have got a part-time job, is the revenue sufficient to cover your month to month necessities and monthly determination? There are in fact specific financial risks involved when you are using such loan during the lack of employment.

When you wish to get rid of many of your costs, debt consolidation is a real possibility. Ensure that you check out all of the options you have. Talk to several loan providers with your needs. You may find that there are numerous essential advantages to combining your financial obligations. You can increase your credit score and have more money about other things in life.

Thus, knowing that people who have poor credit can have the chance to drive their car is a prayer answered to many folks, and there are easy ways to accomplish it. The majority of people, when mentioned having their dream auto, would answer that they will always be pleased to know more how to get the idea. Nowadays, getting approved for your car loan can be so much more comfortable and fairly more convenient because of the presence from the Internet.

Whether you are naive of cars, know a few things or is a complete specialist when it comes to motor vehicles there is a website that can help you check plus compare prices. A site that can help it convenient for you to search exact different model of cars so you could adequately select one before buying.


Monamy 1. 37 x 53. Plymouth City Art Gallery. Currently being cleaned.


In order to determine precisely how and when Monamy made use of the graphic aids available to him, in my view it is necessary to start by concentrating first on the depiction of the lighthouse, and for the time being to ignore the composition of the background shipping.

To the left are two prints showing Winstanley’s first construction. The upper is the earlier, “Drawn at ye Rock by Jaaziell Johnston, Painter”, which was engraved and issued in 1698. Another print of the second tower was issued after its construction in 1699.

The lower print is based on the upper, and was engraved by Henry Roberts, 1761, after the completion of Smeaton’s lighthouse in 1759, and issued in connection with Smeaton’s account of its construction. Roberts also engraved a print of the second construction at the same time: see here.

There can be no doubt that Monamy’s painting portrays this first Winstanley construction. It would also seem reasonable to assume that he made use of the earlier engraving.

There were, however, other drawings of this lighthouse. Alison Barnes has generously directed my attention to an entry in the Calendar of Treasury Papers, Jan 7, 1702, Vol LXXVII, p 6, which shows that Thomas Baston “….. by the King’s order, through Major Gen Trelawny, … made a draught of the lighthouse on the Eddystone near Plymouth, which the King then had at Kensington, and that afterwards, by his express orders, a second draught of the same, much larger, and according to the new alterations, which were then made, in that lighthouse, together with the draughts of several of the King’s ships of war, which after much pains and six months labour, he performed to general satisfaction, and delivered to the King at Hampton Court …..”

Besides the print, therefore, Monamy could have made use of Johnston’s original drawing, or Thomas Baston’s drawing, and it is apparent that Winstanley himself made drawings, as well as a wooden model.

There are salient additions and differences between Monamy’s painting and the engraving after Johnston, discussed below.

M1: The cleaned section. From the cover of Henry Winstanley, by Alison Barnes, 2003.

The most obvious and striking differences are the long projecting arm with the red ensign; the vestige of what looks like a central door to the left of the ladder; and the head-on view of the rock on which the lighthouse stands. It is clear that Monamy also made use of a drawing by the Younger van de Velde, reproduced further down.


Below is a sketch by the Younger van de Velde, 1699; reproduced in Robinson, van de Velde Drawings, Vol II, 1974, p.287. Van de Velde’s sketch is described by Michael Robinson on p.122 as “The Eddystone lighthouse drawn probably immediately after its completion. [It] … was begun in 1696. The light was exhibited for the first time on 14 November 1698.”

In her authoritative study of Winstanley’s life and work, Alison Barnes writes that “In the summer of 1699, Mr Winstanley strengthened, raised and enlarged his lighthouse.” She has pointed out that this drawing must have been made during the summer, when work was in progress, since it appears to show some but not all of the features of the final structure. The central door and the flag belong to the final stages, but the drawing does not include the gallery to the right, clearly delineated on engravings of the strengthened building of 1699-1703, or the mottoes. The over-elaborate wrought ironwork crowning the first construction has been replaced with ironwork more closely matching the engraved print of the final lighthouse. Essentially, therefore, van de Velde’s sketch is of the second construction, considerably taller and more robust than the first.

It is very obvious that although Monamy intended to commemorate the pioneering achievement of the first, original structure, he has followed the composition of the van de Velde sketch, and added the bright red colouring of the ensign, with its attendant keeper, for visual effect. The sky and the cloud formations are based on first-hand observation, as Janet Tamblin has remarked, but it is exceedingly unlikely that Monamy ever saw either of the Winstanley structures before they vanished.

Monamy’s exploitation of the van de Velde composition, in his three known lighthouse paintings, will be discussed on other pages. Meanwhile, his second depiction of Winstanley’s first lighthouse is examined here.

winstanley’s lighthouse 1: M1
winstanley’s lighthouse 1: M3
winstanley’s lighthouse 2
rudyerd’s lighthouse: M2
smeaton’s lighthouse

miscellaneous lighthouses
lighthouse paintings composition
monamy website index

© Charles Harrison Wallace 2004



1.    I will tell you      my personal testament,
2.    tally the weight      of weary days,
3.    the hours of torment,      the times of agony,
4.    the bitter heart-stabs      I have abided,
5.    endured in anguish      in endless keels
6.    thrown through the troughs      of towering waves
often obsessed      in the cell of my heart
7.    through night’s narrow watches      as the prows of my ships
8.    dashed beside cliffs.      Cold grasped
9.    my aching feet,      frost clenched my skin,
10.   chilling my bones,      while sorrow burned inward,
11.   hot in my heart:      the hunger within
12.   ate at my spirit,      sick of my wandering
over the ocean.      He whose lot
13.   keeps him on land      can never know
14.   my sorrow and need      on the freezing sea,
15.   how I have endured      the path of the exile,
16.   deprived of my kin,      through winters of pain
17.   hung with grim icicles      while hail scourged the wind.
18.   There I heard nothing      but the roar of the sea,
19.   the crash of the ice road.      The swan’s blare,
20.   did me for games —      the gannet’s cry,
21.   the curlew’s song      for sociable laughter —
22.   the mew’s singing      for the drinking of mead.
23.   There storms beat the stone cliffs,      there the tern answered
the shattering waves      with icy feathers;
24.   often the eagle’s scream      surrounded the storm
25.   with feathers of darkness.      No familiar protector
26.   could bring consolation      to my care riddled spirit.
27.   Yet those who enjoy      a complacent life
28.   secure in their cities,      stately and wine-proud,
29.   cannot comprehend      why I must continue,
30.   however weary,      to wander the sea-path.
31.   Snow swept from the north,      night’s shadows descended,
32.   frost held earth bound,      snow covered the world,
33.   the coldest of grains.      Yet thoughts grip my heart,
34.   need moves my spirit:      I must go by myself
35.   over the salt crests,      the cavernous ocean;
36.   always my mind      moves toward the distance —
37.   my heart beats faster,      I follow its surge
38.   alone as a pilgrim      to land far away.
39.   Yet none is so spirited      nor strong in his courage
40.   nor generous in giving      nor vigorous in youth
41.   nor bold in his actions      nor blessed by his lord
42.   that he has no fears      to follow the sea
43.   to the fate that the Lord      has stored up for him.
44.   The harp does not hold him      nor the hoarding of rings
45.   nor the pleasures of love      nor worldly attainments —
46.   his only thought      is the tossing of waves —
47.   though he has his longings      alone on the sea.
48.   Groves take blossom,      towns come alive,
49.   meadows flourish,      the world is refreshed;
50.   all of this urges      the eager mind
51.   of the veteran traveler      to venture forth
52.   into the distance      over deep seas.
53.   Even the cuckoo,      the warden of summer,
54.   urges him forward      with mournful voice
foreboding sorrow,      the bitter fate
55.   of the innermost heart.      Warriors at home,
56.   blessed with comfort,      can never know
57.   how much the sea-pacer      must suffer and bear
who follows farthest      the path of the exile.
58.   Yet now my heart      hammers my chest,
59.   longs for the journey;      my hungering spirit
60.   soars out wide      over the whale’s turf
61.   to earth’s far corners      and comes back to me
62.   insistant and greedy;      the lone-glider cries
63.   irresistibly pulling      my soul to the whale’s path,
64.   the boundless ocean.      For the bliss of the Lord
65.   is warmer to me      than this waking death
66.   that flickers on land.      I have no faith
67.   in earthly possessions      that pass in a day.
68.   Till the end of life’s tide      one of three things
69.   remains uncertain      in worldly events:
70.   illness or age      or hate driven swords
71.   will take a man’s life      as fate turns its way.
72.   Hence for all men      it is best to accomplish
73.   durable fame,      renown in the world,
74.   among their survivors,      those who speak after
75.   they have departed,      through deeds of courage,
76.   through memorable acts      against the fiends’ malice,
77.   opposing the devil,      earning posterity’s
78.   emulation and praise,      and forever and ever
79.   enjoying the glory      of the angels in heaven,
80.   the triumphant host.      The time has passed
81.   for earthly magnificence      in majestic realms;
82.   now no emperors,      no imperial Caesars,
83.   no givers of gold      do glorious deeds
84.   among their peers      or live in splendor
85.   in lordly dominion      as they did in past ages.
86.   That fraternity has fallen,      the fellowship ended;
87.   weaklings now work      the world they left
88.   in grief and toil.      Grandeur has faded,
89.   earth’s nobility      ages and whithers,
90.   just like mankind      throughout middlearth.
91.   Decrepitude takes them,      all grow pale,
92.   white-headed they lament,      mourn for old friends,
93.   the children of nobles      given to earth.
94.   When life has departed,      the cask of the flesh
95.   tastes nothing sweet,      nor feels any pain,
96.   its hands cannot move,      nor its mind fashion thoughts.
97.   Though brother gives kinsman      a magnificent funeral,
98.   packing the coffin      with precious treasure,
99.   with gold to his tribute,      it won’t travel with him;
100.  no gold can aid      nor gain atonement
101.  for a soul full of sin      in the presence of God,
102.  however he hoards it      here on this earth.
103.  Great is the strength      of God almighty;
His terrible power      turns over this world.
104.  It was He Who established      the earth’s foundations,
105.  spread wide its face      and framed it with heaven.
106.  A fool is he who fears not his Lord,
fated to die without preparation;
107.  Blessed is he whose life is humble,
heaven will grant him its mercy.
108.  The Lord will secure him a steadfast spirit
because he surrenders to the power of God.
109.  A man must control      the heat of his temper,
must find a firm base      for his fierce spirit,
110.  must honor his pledges      and lead a pure life.
111.  Every man      must learn moderation
112.  with friends and with foes,      [in fellowship and] anger.
113.  Though he may not wish      to see his true friends
114.  filled with fire      or burned in the flames,
115.  [yet he must keep patience:]      Fate has more power,
116.  God has more might      than any man knows.
117.  Let us consider      where we have our true home,
118.  then let us reflect      on how to arrive there,
119.  then let us labor      to enter that place,
120.  and there find the blessings,      the beauties of heaven,
121.  where the source of life      is the love of God
122.  in endless peace.      Eternally thank
123.  our Lord in the highest,      that he should so honor us,
124.  the Prince of Glory,      throughout all time.

The present rendering consists of a poet’s personal engagement with the text and extensions of Norse verse forms over a period of some 20 years. It makes no claims to scholarship. In translating other Anglo-Saxon poems, notably the Exeter Book riddles, I tried to work with the original order of phrases on the hunch that the Anglo-Saxon poets plotted half lines as a basic device shaping all levels of significance, ranging from rhythm to exposition to stages of epiphany. In one of the most provocative and meaningful workings of Anglo-Saxon poetry, “So For Then Also The Dragon,” which I published in several versions, Don Wellman took a similar approach much farther. My work in this direction lead me to a dead end; Wellman’s does not. In my version of “The Seafarer,” I returned to a more conventional approach, and to such formal properties as alliteration, which I had previously avoided, preferring to emphasize patterns set up by syntax, relative stress, and caesura. In my “Seafarer” working, I played considerably with formal attributes I had previously neglected, and I did so in ways (such as altered and extended alliteration, and assonance) not necessarily present in the original text, just as I allowed myself some of the usual liberties in lexical transference. I also found that half-lines sometimes worked better in Modern English when extended to full lines. By numbering the lines of my working according to the base text, I indicate extensions of this sort by omitting line numbers, so that extended lines have no numbers in the portions extended. I also broke hypermetric lines, presenting the second halves as separate, indented lines. My primary source for the text was the old war-horse, George Philip Krapp and Elliott Van Kirk Dobbie’s The Exeter Book, Columbia University Press, 1936. My efforts with Anglo-Saxon poetry are inextricably bound up with original poems of various sorts, most importantly, Milestones, a series begun in 1970 which take their base in the life of contemporary America as seen while driving cars; and with adaptations of Chinese poetry — particularly in a sequence titled Clouds Over Fortjade in which the activist Tu Fu holds an oblique debate with the quietist Wang Wei, through parallelism and antithesis worked out in screenfolds. My rendering of “The Seafarer” was published in a tiny but magnificently crafted edition by Walter Tisdale, which contained variants in production in different individual copies. The poem as it appears here includes several textual revisions made since the book’s publication. Tisdale also published the first volume ofMilestones, showing his usual sensitivity to context and sequence. May poets everywhere find such sensitivity in their publishers, on the web and in print — as Charles Harrison Wallace shows those whose work appears at this site.

Readers interested in my Light and Dust site, a growing, eclectic, anti-sectarian, multicultural, and multilingual collection of contemporary poetry, may click on this line to check it out. – Karl Young

� Karl Young 1990

all rights reserved


anglo-saxon text

main index

back to other versions



Celtic Mysteries
John Sharkey

These notes arise from the perception, discussed elsewhere [SSAS], that eorþan sceatas in line 61 of The Seafarer, despite its plural number, does not mean “the surfaces of the world” [Hieatt, 1967], “earth’s far reaches” [Wain, 1980], “surface, region, expanse” (Seven Old English Poems; J.C.Pope, 1981), but is a near equivalent of modern Swedish jordens sköte, ie the “lap” of Mother Nature, a blandly benign personification. The reading of “lap” is adopted by Neville Denny, 1960; and Clair McPherson, 1987, another careful translator, has “corners of the earth”, although a sense of the deep, romantic chasm, located in Coleridge’s Xanadu and reduced by Kane to a rosebud, is missing from these corners. For German Schoss, Professor Breul gives “sprig”, “shoot”, “lap”, “womb”, “flap” and “tax” (of course: there is a persistent association of the “lap” with “treasure”, even if it’s only a ha’penny, as the music hall song put it); and cites the word in combinations such as (im) Schosse seiner Familie, Schosse der Kirche, Schosse der Götter. The connotations of generation, church and heathendom are self-evident, but nobody, to my knowledge, has yet connected German Schoss with Anglo-Saxon sceat. The word’s relationship to Schatz is obvious.

Mother Nature, under many different names, is otherwise the Great Goddess of prehistoric myth. Goddess literature (some titles below, or see this website: here) is familiar enough to need little comment, but it’s worth noting that much of it mourns the supposed shift of authority, in the course of the last thirty-odd thousand years of humanity’s sex wars, from Mother to Father. Perhaps this conjectural pendulum is now starting to swing back; or perhaps sexual reproduction, as we have known it, is about to give way to cloning and genetic engineering. These comments aim only to draw attention to a few points of passing interest. A comprehensively edifying site on these matters is posted by Chris Witcombe; see his views on the Venus of Willendorf, here.

The earliest known human artefacts (a discovery in 1981 at Golan Heights, Israel, is alleged to be at least 230,000 and perhaps up to 800,000 years old — a likely story? Check discussion here or here) of purely aesthetic, non-practical character seem to be representations of the female body. It is not clear to me why these figurines should automatically be described as “goddesses”, and I would have thought that up to, say, about 20,000 BC they are better thought of as manifestations of mankind’s (or womankind’s) slowly evolving sense of self-knowledge — the consequence of apple-eating. Since Eve tasted the fruit before Adam, woman’s awareness preceded that of man, and she retains a greater self-perception of her body and its functions. Doesn’t she? Current opinion, in some quarters, holds that the “Venus” figurines were self-images created by women.

A few millenia further on, the self-knowing Mensch becomes increasingly conscious that it is subject to external forces over which it has no control. It is kicked out of Eden and perplexity sets in. Who, or what, directs these forces? What is the origin and purpose of its existence?

Why does it age and eventually depart, and where does it go? The search for survival begins, and curiosity engenders science, pure and applied. Intellectual necessity begets invention. He, more probably than she, lifts his head — are wolves the only other animals to notice the sky? Dogs will also bark at the full moon — and sees the sun, moon and stars. A vengeful deity is conceived. Man is reborn from woman, but powers exerted by more distant bodies direct life’s daily round. The sun and rain impregnate the earth, the moon regulates ovulation, there are patterns in the stars. Is there some veiled link between the vaults of heaven and the lap of nature?

Such a micro-macrocosmic marriage has been adduced by most societies. The earth is usually female and the sky male, except in Egypt, where, above a prone but ithyphallic god, a sky-goddess spanned the welkin, ingested the sun at evening and gave birth to it at dawn. Further east, the yin-yang cosmic circle symbolises the division between two opposite but equal forces in harmonious stasis and androgynous unity. The upper section is the yang and the lower is the yin. Everything in the universe is shaped by their interaction. They represent the riddle of creation, and symbolise the dualities experienced by mankind: heaven and earth, male and female, light and dark.

There is no evil, and no infernal medieval hell in this concept. The original meaning of the word would seem simply to be “earth”: simultaneously the grave and the lap of creation.The ‘hidden place’ that is “hell” is explained etymologically by John Ayto. The term “goes back ultimately to Indo-European *kel- ‘cover, hide’, which has contributed an extraordinary number of words to English, including apocalypse, cell, cellar, conceal, helmet, hull (‘pod’), occult, and possibly colour and holster. Its Germanic descendant was *khel-, *khal-, (any etymological connection with the Indian goddess Kali?) whose derivatives included *khallo and *khaljo. The first became modern English hall, the second modern English hell — so both hall and hell were originally ‘concealed or covered places’, although in very different ways: the hall with a roof, hell with at least six feet of earth. Related Germanic forms include German Hölle, Dutch hel and Swedish helvete (in which vete means ‘punishment’).” Coincidentally or not, Sw veta means “to know”. Swedish helvete, according to Elof Hellquist, is virtually the same word as Icelandic helvíti, Old Saxon helliwîti and Anglo-Saxon hellewîte. Anglo-Saxon wîte, according to Bosworth-Toller, means “punishment, pain that is inflicted as punishment, torment”. Wîtedom, says the same authority, is “knowledge derived from a superhuman source”, ie revelation; from which it is a small step for an Anglo-Saxon to understand that wisdom, knowledge, and awareness of humanity’s nakedness, are forms of mental torment, hell on earth, and the consequence of forbidden apple-eating. Wîte is also cognate with “witness”, and the implication is that observation, to be observant and observed, underlies the concept of punishment. Self-consciousness is the painful price of knowledge. Ayenbite of Inwit — remorse of conscience, an affliction suffered by those sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought.

Sartre, in Huis Clos (almost French for cul-de-sac), noted that “hell is other people”. He had 20th century hells in mind. “Scholars have argued, based on surviving texts, that Hel was not considered an evil deity until Norse beliefs began to be influenced by Christianity … There was no stigma of cruelty attached to her; rather, she appeared to be sad or depressed. Her palace was as imposing as the halls of the gods, and she met the dead souls who came to her with courtesy. They seemed to dwell peacefully in Hel; they were not tortured or mistreated in any way. Nevertheless, by the Viking age, emphasis was placed on Hel’s subjects as criminals — murderers, thieves, adulterers — and others who had not died in battle, and thus had not been carried off by Odin’s Valkyries to the heavenly palace of Valhalla.” These comments fromCompton’s Encyclopedia Online echo Jacob Grimm: “Originally Hellia is not death nor any evil being, she neither kills nor torments; she takes the souls of the departed and holds them with inexorable grip. The idea of a place evolved … the converted heathen without any ado applied it to the Christian underworld, the abode of the damned; all Teutonic nations have done this … because that local notion already existed under heathenism, perhaps also because the church was not sorry to associate lost spirits with a heathen and fiendish divinity.” [p.312]. In her Woman’s Encyclopedia Barbara Walker remarks that “Though Christian theology gave its underworld the name of the Goddess Hel, it was quite a different place from her womb of regeneration. The ancients didn’t view the underworld as primarily a place of punishment. It was dark, mysterious and awesome, but not the vast torture chamber Christians made of it.”

In a more recent work, Hel, the Hidden Goddess of Northern Mythology, two Swedish authors, Gunnel and Göran Liljenroth, have put forward their theory, based partly on a close analysis of the many northern, mainly Scandinavian, place-names which incorporate the element (h)el- or (h)al-, that about 10,000 years ago the land was named for the goddess Hel, whose devotees settled those parts of the continent which are now submerged. The presence of these Ice Age peoples, they maintain, can be traced in numerous existing place-names, of which the most familiar to English speakers will be Helsinki and Elsinore. (Hamlet’s royal seat is an anglicization of Danish Helsingør, across the Sound from what is now the Swedish city of Helsingborg.) There are Swedish provinces called Halland and Helsingland, and countries with similar names are Heligoland and Holland; though Holland may mean holt-land, ie woodland. But more hollows than holts in Holland today. Any significance that Hull, near Wetwang, on England’s east coast, faces Scandinavia?

Click here for Iman Wilkens’ new map of hell.

What song the sirens sang, or what language was spoken in northern Europe during neolithic times, though puzzling questions, are not beyond all conjecture. If G. and G. Liljenroth may be believed, the word for the world in those days was hel, not a land outside a lost and vanished Eden but fruitfulness identified, a “goddess” called Hel.

We know what she looked like, since her portrait has been left us, carved on stone in a grave passage at Trinity-on-Sea, Brittany, France. This likeness, right, redrawn by Lully Aldworth, appears on p.7 of Hilda Ellis Davidson’s latest study, Roles of the Northern Goddess, 1998. In her introductory overview she is gently critical of Marija Gimbutas, and mentions Robert Graves’s “nebulous goddess in early Celtic literature, on which he was no authority”.

go to part 2

Why does Venus often lack arms?
Magritte’s Natural Knowledge, no date, flanks the Venus of Lespugue, France; 21,000 BC.
click for more on the Lespugue Venus.

Figurine carved in mammoth ivory. Restored.
from The Metamorphosis of Baubo
Winifred Milius Lubell, Vanderbilt UP 1994

bird   divide   man   other   sea   ship   sun

previous goddess and gods

theme index
index of picture collages
main index

“Archaeologists, geneticists and others are … trying to understand … linguistic behaviour and the prototypes of the languages we all speak … the day may yet come when … we may have some idea of the language the builders of Stonehenge spoke.” Stonehenge; D.Souden, English Heritage 1997, p.60.

General Reading List

Ayto, John; Dictionary of Word Origins; Bloomsbury 1990
Baring, Anne and Cashford, Jules; The Myth of the Goddess; BCA 1991
Berntsson, Sonny; Holy Trees in the History of Mankind; article in Liljestenar; published by Historieforum Västra Götaland 2001
Bosworth & Toller; An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary; OUP 1898
Branston, Brian; Gods of the North; Thames & Hudson 1955
Branston, Brian; The Lost Gods of England; Thames & Hudson 1957
Breul, Karl; German and English Dictionary; Cassell 10th ed. 1952
Briard, Jacques; The Bronze Age in Barbarian Europe; RKP, 1979
Duncan, Thomas G; Late Medieval English Lyrics and Carols 1400-1530; Penguin 2000
Ellis [Davidson], Hilda; The Road to Hel; CUP 1943
Ellis Davidson, Hilda; The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe; Routledge 1993
Ellis Davidson, Hilda; Roles of the Northern Goddess; Routledge 1998
Gimbutas, Marija; The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe; Thames and Hudson 1982
Graves, Robert; The White Goddess; Faber 1952
Grimm, Jacob; Teutonic Mythology; 1883, J.S.Stallybrass trans.; Dover reprint 1966.
Hellquist, Elof; Etymologisk Ordbok; Lund 1922
Liljenroth, G & G; Hel: den gömda gudinnan i nordisk mytologi; AMA Förlag 1995
Lubell, Winifred Milius; The Metamorphosis of Baubo; Vanderbilt UP 1994
Nordgren, Ingemar; Nordic Ring-names; Migracijske Teme 1-2, Zagreb 2000
Paquet, Marcel; Magritte; Taschen 2000
Partridge, Eric; Dictionary of Catch Phrases; “keep your hand on your halfpenny (till the right man turns up)”. Late 19th century? With thanks to Nigel Rees. But not in RKP 1977 edition.
Partridge, Eric; Origins; RKP 1958
Partridge, Eric; Shakespeare’s Bawdy; RKP 1956
Riding, Laura and Graves, Robert; A Survey of Modernist Poetry; Heinemann 1927
Rundkvist, M; Järnålderns ringamuletter med knoppar eller vulster (Knobbed or ribbed ring amulets of the Iron Age); Fornvännen 91. Stockholm 1996
Rydberg, Viktor; Teutonic Mythology; Swan Sonnenschein 1889
Turner, Alice K; The History of Hell; Harcourt Brace 1993
Walker, Barbara G; The Woman’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets; Harper & Row 1983

Four little “goddesses” with neckrings 700-500 BC       Statens Historiska Musem, Sthlm
click on picture for comparison with Cycladic intruder


© Charles Harrison Wallace 2001,2009
all rights reserved


John J. Graham & Peter Jamieson: 1949

The New Shetlander;  No 15 March-April & No 16 May-June, 1949
Lerwick, Shetland Isles


(After the Anglo-Saxon)


I can sing you a sang o me vaeges:
Hou in driech oors, troo days o dadderi,
I hiv dree’d mony stangs ida hert,
Hiv raked ower da haagless seas
Whaur dule hed its hame.
Aft, stivvened wi cowld, I keepit da nightwatch
At da boos o me boat as shu huived
Ida shorebod. Me feet wis pinnished wi frost,
Wis hochbund wi shakkels o ice,
Yet hot wis da toarments happit aroond
Me sea-forfochen an blud-fastin hert.
Him dat’s eart-fast kens no a dis,
Nor hou, waesom an stirned in ice
Frae da onding o hail,
I wintered among da fremd.
Dere I heard nocht bit da brimtud,
Da ice-cowld waves, and anterin sang fae da swan.
For lichtsomeness da scriech o da solan saired me,
Da kittiwakes klaag for lauchter o men,
An uibin o sea-maws instead o da foy.
Whan da vaelensi baert on da banks, da tirrick,
Wi icy fedders, sang fornenst it;
An aft, da erne, wi brim-sabbit wings,
Lowsed a scriech laek a mellishon.
But dere, nane a me ain fok
Could lichten me wanless sowl.
Little vaars he wha lichtsom lives
Ida toun, croose an aglud wi drams,
Wi but little a traachles aroond him,
Hou aft I’ve aandu’d disjaskit on da face o da sea.
Da mirknin kam doon, it moored frae da nort,
Da eart wis happit in haar, an hail wis faain —
Cowldest o hairsts frae da lyft. Yit me hert-tochts
Are tiftin to be awa tae da haaf.
Ta baffel fornenest da stramash o da sea;
An amp at me hert aye iggs
Me speerit to waunder tae unkan laands
Ta seek oot da hame o da fremd.

(After the Anglo-Saxon)

Our contributor, “Stooralaand”, has sent the following part of the poem “The Seafarer”, done into Shetlandic, and starting from the place where John Graham left off in his translation in the previous issue: —–

Dir nenn sae heich-minded among men,
Nor yit hanselled wi’ a lokk i’ da waarld
Nor sae braa wi’ yung-bluid,
Nor sae steev in wark, wi’ a mester naar till ‘is hert,
Dat he haena dül in his haaf-vaige —
Da Loard’ll no’ doe muckle fur ‘im.
He tinks na a da harp nor giein rings
Nor yit a da wumman’s waarm lips and breest
Nor a da waarld’s hope,
Nor a owt forbye aless da rowin waves;
Bit aye he tinks lang wha gengs apo da haaf.
Boannie flooers ir athin da widds, fagr ir da toons,
Moors glim wi’ loveliness, da waarld tifts wi’ life;
Aa diss iggs da aaber hert
Ta geng stravaigin, fir da sheeldir ‘at tinks
Ta geng fram apo da mar-gaets.
An da cuckoo waarns wi’ fey voice;
Da spae-burd oa simmer nuns, an murrnd
Wi’ a saad breest. Da man ‘ats weel-aff
Kens na a whit dey pit up wi’
‘At gengs awa fram.
Sae me towt waanders ower whit me hert haes a keepin-apun,
Me inner maroo gengs ower da mar-flöd,
Ower da whaal’s-gaet a da muckle haaf,
Da brodd mar-burns. Dat wye ir da fellisom things a da Loard
Haetter athin me dan diss puir amiss life
Gjaa’n ower da laand. I dunna hadd wi’ it
‘At da walt a da ert’ll aye staand.
Dir tree things aye oon-siccar
Ere a sheeldir’s time comes ta geng awa.
Ill-helt, being oot-aald an depoorpirt,
or da ill-towts a da swird-edge
Takks da braeth frae da fey man —
An sae fur aa da yarls whits roessd
A dem ‘at live an spaek lang eftir diss
Is ‘at he wrocht ere he good apo ‘is wya
Da best things apo da ert fornenst ill-willied men,
Daarin ta doe fornenest swart sheeldirs,
Sae ‘at da sonns a men
Sall roess ‘im aa da days a man,
An ‘is glory live wi’ da heich angels
Fur aye an aye, hellisom hefts a life never-saesin,
Hert’s solya wi’ strang eens.
Days ir gaan bye
Is weel is da sheenin makk-a-doe a ert’s keengdoms.

STOORALAAND (Peter Jamieson)


[Shetland Library; Lerwick]

back to other versions